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Where Can I Buy Propylene Glycol



Lastly - and this is the reason we know about propylene glycol - it is used in e-liquids for vaping. PG is paired with vegetable glycerin (VG) to form the base of all e-liquids. The PG works well as an emulsifier to keep the ingredients of the e-liquid mixed together. Plus, it works well as a product that can be vapourised and inhaled. The VG acts as a thickening agent - if an e-liquid has more VG in it, then it will produce more vapour and more intense flavour.




where can i buy propylene glycol



Where to buy propylene glycolThe best propylene glycol for vaping will come from a reputable vape retailer, like us Vape Simple - all of our e-liquids contain propylene glycol, vegetable glycerin and flavouring.


This food-grade glycol is used as a heat transfer liquid in beer dispensing systems and temperate chillers. Using a mix of glycol and water will allow your cooling fluid to go sub-zero allowing icy cold beer and a frosty font. Glycol mixes are also used in jacketed stainless conical fermenters.


Propylene glycol is also used in a variety of other applications such as anti-freeze, cosmetics, food manufacturing/processing systems, VAC applications, laser cutting, milk & wine production equipment.


Consumers were amazed and frustrated to hear that their favorite foods and drinks might contain the chemical, exacerbated by its presence in so many other daily products. Many people became scared of the association between antifreeze and food, although propylene glycol simply lowers the freezing point of water (just like salt) and was only introduced into antifreeze products to replace a more dangerous chemical.


One typical adverse reaction to propylene glycol includes mild skin irritation, including causing redness. Usually, this happens in people who are allergic to the chemical and subsides after a short period of time after the body has had time to break down the compound. (6)


Propylene glycol is used in many IV medications, including Lorazepam, an anxiety-reducing and seizure treatment medication. This drug is often administered to patients with extensive burns as sedation during the healing process or to psychiatric patients. When given Lorazepam for an extended period of time in large doses, clinicians have discovered possible kidney issues in the form of increased creatinine levels in the blood. (7) Generally, creatinine (a product of muscle breakdown and growth) remains in consistent levels in the bloodstream. Excess creatinine is a sign that the kidney is unable to process compounds at a normal rate.


Heart disease and symptoms have been commonly associated with propylene glycol exposure, mostly in part due to a few case studies that have caused alarming concern. One such patient was an 8-month-old who suffered a heart attack after four doses of topical medication to treat a burn.


I did mention earlier that propylene glycol is not considered bioaccumulative (builds up over time in the bloodstream). However, critically ill adults may be an exception to this rule. When administered large doses of Lorazepam, adults with or without kidney issues have experienced an abnormal buildup of propylene glycol. (12)


Apoptosis is a genetically regulated endogenous cellular process in which a variety of extrinsic and intrinsic signals can activate multiple independent pathways resulting in cell death (1). Ethanol (EtOH), a commonly abused solvent, produces widespread apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing mammalian brain (2,3). Recently, we reported that dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a widely used solvent in industry and biological research that is routinely given to children as part of a transplantation procedure, is able to mimic this neurodegenerative process in the developing mouse brain (4). This solvent-induced apoptosis appears to be most severe during the period of synaptogenesis (the brain growth spurt). In rodents, the period of vulnerability occurs during the first several weeks of postnatal life, whereas in humans, it extends from the second trimester of gestation to several years after birth (5).


Many agents used in pediatric neurology are prepared in a liquid medium containing 30 to 80% PG, and often also containing 10% EtOH. The use of PG as a vehicle for i.v. drugs is of major concern for two reasons. First, infants can become exposed to extremely high doses of PG, as is the case in the pediatric intensive care unit, where sedatives are administered as long-term i.v. infusions (19,20). Second, many clinically used agents themselves can produce apoptosis in the immature CNS, including phenobarbital (PB) (21,22), which is prepared in 68% (v/v) PG and 10% EtOH. The combined effects of chemicals in these mixtures are unclear and have not been widely studied. Collectively, they may have some adverse effects that are greater than expected, even if their individual doses are subtoxic.


Postnatal day 7 (P7) animals were exposed for 8 h to various doses of propylene glycol (PG). Total activated caspase-3 (AC-3)-positive neurons were estimated using stereology. Number of degenerating cells increased with increasing doses of PG (F(5, 35) = 42.55, P R2 = 0.99; n = 6 at each dose tested). Significantly greater damage was observed at 2 ml/kg compared to saline (*P = 0.0042). Error bars are too small to be seen.


The combined effect of phenobarbital (PB) and propylene glycol (PG), both used at subtoxic doses. A preparation of 5 mg/kg of PB in saline (n = 8) produces levels of apoptosis similar to saline alone (n = 8). PB prepared in 68% PG (n = 10) produces significantly more apoptosis than PB prepared in saline (P


PG is used as a solvent for topical, oral, and injectable medications and is generally considered to be safe. However, we found that PG produces neurodegeneration in the developing mouse CNS. The degenerative process was relatively rapid, with cells beginning to fragment within 12 h of drug exposure. The degeneration is AC-3 positive and has morphological characteristics of apoptosis, as confirmed by electron microscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that PG produces apoptosis in the CNS of any species. The pattern of degeneration seen with PG was largely similar to those of EtOH (2) and DMSO (4). Likewise, the observed damage was dependent on age at the time of exposure. Peak sensitivity was seen at P7, when damage was widespread but appeared to affect specific populations of neurons. The damage was most striking in the CPu, thalamus, and layers 2 and 4 of the cortex. The specific cell populations undergoing degeneration also varied when tested at different ages. The most noticeable difference was that damage was consistently seen in the dentate gyrus at P14 and P17, whereas it was not seen at earlier ages.


Propylene glycol (IUPAC name: propane-1,2-diol) is a viscous, colorless liquid, which is nearly odorless but possesses a faintly sweet taste. Its chemical formula is CH3CH(OH)CH2OH. Containing two alcohol groups, it is classed as a diol. It is miscible with a broad range of solvents, including water, acetone, and chloroform. In general, glycols[5] are non-irritating and have very low volatility.[6]


It is produced on a large scale primarily for the production of polymers. In the European Union, it has E-number E1520 for food applications. For cosmetics and pharmacology, the number is E490. Propylene glycol is also present in propylene glycol alginate, which is known as E405. Propylene glycol is a compound which is GRAS (generally recognized as safe) by the US Food and Drug Administration under 21 CFR x184.1666, and is also approved by the FDA for certain uses as an indirect food additive. Propylene glycol is approved and used as a vehicle for topical, oral, and some intravenous pharmaceutical preparations in the U.S. and in Europe.


The compound is sometimes called (alpha) α-propylene glycol to distinguish it from the isomer propane-1,3-diol, known as (beta) β-propylene glycol. Propylene glycol is chiral. Commercial processes typically use the racemate. The S-isomer is produced by biotechnological routes.


Industrially, propylene glycol is mainly produced from propylene oxide (for food-grade use). According to a 2018 source, 2.16 M tonnes are produced annually.[6] Manufacturers use either non-catalytic high-temperature process at 200 C (392 F) to 220 C (428 F), or a catalytic method, which proceeds at 150 C (302 F) to 180 C (356 F) in the presence of ion exchange resin or a small amount of sulfuric acid or alkali.[7]


Final products contain 20% propylene glycol, 1.5% of dipropylene glycol, and small amounts of other polypropylene glycols.[8] Further purification produces finished industrial grade or USP/JP/EP/BP grade propylene glycol that is typically 99.5% or greater. Use of USP (US Pharmacopoeia) propylene glycol can reduce the risk of Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) rejection.[9]


Propylene glycol can also be obtained from glycerol, a byproduct from the production of biodiesel.[6] This starting material is usually reserved for industrial use because of the noticeable odor and taste that accompanies the final product.


S-Propanediol is synthesized via fermentation methods. Lactic acid and lactaldehyde are common intermediates. Dihydroxyacetone phosphate, one of the two products of breakdown (glycolysis) of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, is a precursor to methylglyoxal. This conversion is the basis of a potential biotechnological route to the commodity chemical 1,2-propanediol. Three-carbon deoxysugars are also precursor to the 1,2-diol.[6]


Forty-five percent of propylene glycol produced is used as a chemical feedstock for the production of unsaturated polyester resins. In this regard, propylene glycol reacts with a mixture of unsaturated maleic anhydride and isophthalic acid to give a copolymer. This partially unsaturated polymer undergoes further crosslinking to yield thermoset plastics. Related to this application, propylene glycol reacts with propylene oxide to give oligomers and polymers that are used to produce polyurethanes.[6] Propylene glycol is used in water-based acrylic architectural paints to extend dry time which it accomplishes by preventing the surface from drying due to its slower evaporation rate compared to water. 041b061a72


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